Try refreshing the page, or returning to the homepage. If the problem continues, please visit our support portal. Plaquenil toxicity heart Sulfasalazine methotrexate plaquenil rheumatoid arthritis Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine Red Pages Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Background The emergence and spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine CQ necessitated the change from CQ to artemisinin-based combination therapies ACTs as first-line drug for the management of uncomplicated malaria in Ghana in 2005. Chloroquine resistance was first reported in both South America and South East Asia in late 1950s. Since then chloroquine resistant strains have spread throughout the ranges where the conditions are favorable for the development of the parasite especially in the regions of sub-Saharan Africa 6. Alternatively, we suggest using this opportunity to take a little break from work and read some of the interesting articles below. Let’s see if we can help you out with the following options: You can perform a search at the top of this page or report a broken link to prevent others from ending up with this error. Chloroquine resistance 2017 Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine – New Warnings, Prevalence of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance. Malaria prophylaxis chloroquine doseChloroquine resistance tanzaniaOptometry plaquenil dosage retinopathyChloroquine contraindicated pregnancy Petersen, I. et al. Balancing drug resistance and growth rates via compensatory mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter. Mol. Microbiol. 97, 381–395 2015. Drug resistance in Plasmodium Nature Reviews Microbiology. Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki. The Origins of Antimalarial-Drug Resistance NEJM. Two important currently used antimalarial drugs are derived from plants whose medicinal values had been noted for centuries artemisinin from the Qinghao plant Artemisia annua L, China, 4th century and quinine from the cinchona tree South America, 17th century.2 Monitoring drug resistance is essential for timely changes to treatment policy, which should be initiated when the treatment failure rate in the country exceeds 10% 6, 7. Despite the fact that emergence of chloroquineCQ resistant P.vivax isolates are reported from different parts of the world 8,9,10. Nov 15, 2015 Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4.