Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Avkare plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine hand pain Despite its strategic location and importance, malaria epidemiology and molecular status of chloroquine resistance had not been well documented, and since chloroquine CQ, as the first-line treatment in Plasmodium falciparum infection was discontinued since 2008, it was expected that CQ-sensitive haplotype would be more abundant. Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence. The spread of resistant P. falciparum to previous first-line treatment of malaria chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in nearly all endemic countries originated in almost similar fashion 8. Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. Chloroquine resistant plasmodium falciparum treatment High-Dose Chloroquine for Treatment of Chloroquine- Resistant., Chloroquine - Wikipedia How long has plaquenil been on the market Haiti is a unique country in the Americas because malaria is caused there mainly by Plasmodium falciparum. Despite chloroquine being used for treatment of malaria since 1955, P. falciparum is generally still susceptible to this drug. No Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter.. Detection of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance.. A Molecular Marker for Chloroquine-Resistant Falciparum.. Studies were conducted in Malindi, Kenya, to assess the response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and amodiaquine in vivo by an extended 14-day test and in vitro with the Rieckmann micro test. In-vivo resistance was demonstrated in 19 of 69 28% infections treated with chloroquine, but in only 2 of 60 33% of those treated with amodiaquine p0001. Increased resistance by Plasmodium falciparum parasites led to the withdrawal of the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Ethiopia. Since 2004 artemether-lumefantrine has served to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. However, increasing reports on delayed parasite clearance to artemisinin opens up a new challenge in anti-malarial therapy. With the complete. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance is a major cause of worldwide increases in malaria mortality and morbidity. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt. However, direct proof of a causal relationship has remained elusive and most models have posited a.