Chloroquine acidic environment

Discussion in 'Chloroquin' started by smilemf, 20-Mar-2020.

  1. searchwizard Moderator

    Chloroquine acidic environment


    The most used bafilomycin is bafilomycin A1, a potent inhibitor of cellular autophagy. Bafilomycins have also been found to act as ionophores, transporting potassium K across biological membranes and leading to mitochondrial damage and cell death.

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    A severe eye problem has happened with chloroquine. This may lead to lasting eyesight problems. The risk may be higher if you have some types of eye or kidney problems. The risk may also be higher with some doses of chloroquine, if you use chloroquine for longer than 5 years, or if you take certain other drugs like tamoxifen. One of the most serious side effects is a toxicity in the eye generally with chronic use. People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. Currently it is thought that in the wild type parasite the chloroquine enters the food vacuole as nonprotonated, but is converted to the diprotonated form within the acidic environment and thus prevents the efflux of the drug by the normally positively charged CRT at the K76 site.

    At higher micromolar concentrations, Bafilomycin A1 also acts on P-type ATPases, which have a phosphorylated transitional state. Bafilomycin C1 was found to have activity against Caenorhabditis elegans, ticks, and tapeworms, in addition to stimulating the release of γ-aminobutyruc acid (GABA) from rat synaptosomes. -ATPase (V-ATPase) enzyme, a membrane spanning proton pump that acidifies either the extracellular environment or intracellular organelles such as the lysosome.

    Chloroquine acidic environment

    Autophagy inhibitor chloroquine induces apoptosis of., Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia

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    • Chloroquine - an overview ScienceDirect Topics.
    • Chloroquine Acidic tumor pH inhibits drug effect -- ScienceDaily.

    Acidic pH is an important feature of tumor microenvironment and a major determinant of tumor progression. We reported that cancer cells upregulate autophagy as a survival mechanism to acidic stress. Inhibition of autophagy by administration of chloroquine CQ in combination anticancer therapies is currently evaluated in clinical trials. Jun 08, 2015 That source then goes on to explain that there are problems with chloroquine as an anti-cancer drug the acidic environment apparently neutralizes chloroquine’s effect and that they’re not sure it can be as effective as hoped. The deputy director of the Univ. of Colo. Cancer Center says the effectiveness depends on the type of cancer Nov 25, 2019 Chloroquine is an anti-malaria medicine that works by interfering with the growth of parasites in the red blood cells of the human body. Parasites that cause malaria typically enter the body through the bite of a mosquito.

     
  5. anddro Well-Known Member

    Chloroquine is the generic form of the brand-name prescription medicine Aralen, which is used to prevent and treat malaria — a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite — and to treat amebiasis, an infection of the intestines caused by a parasite. Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects. Antimalarial Drugs – Malaria Site
     
  6. john doe XenForo Moderator

    Applies to hydroxychloroquine: oral tablet Along with its needed effects, hydroxychloroquine (the active ingredient contained in Plaquenil) may cause some unwanted effects. Side Effects of Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine, Warnings, Uses Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Plaquenil Uses, Dosage & Side Effects -
     
  7. gto XenForo Moderator

    Cobalt chloride treatment induces autophagic apoptosis in. U87-MG cells after exposure to CoCl 2. However, pretreatment with 3-mehyladenine 3-MA and chloroquine, inhibitors of cell autophagy, caused significant alleviations in CoCl 2-induced cell autophagy. In contrast, exposure to rapamycin, an inducer of cell autophagy, synergistically induced hypoxia-induced autophagy of U87-MG cells.

    Nuclear factor-kappa B1 inhibits early apoptosis of glioma.