Calcium chloroquine autophagy review

Discussion in 'Chloroquine Pills' started by Link90, 24-Feb-2020.

  1. comp567 Moderator

    Calcium chloroquine autophagy review


    As regards cancer, autophagy may play a tumor suppressive role by preserving cellular integrity during tumor development and by possible contribution to cell death. However, autophagy may also exert oncogenic effects by promoting tumor cell survival and preventing cell death, for example, upon anticancer treatment.

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    Autophagy is a process that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation. This Review discusses clinical interventions to target autophagy in cancer and explains how understanding. The endoplasmic reticulum ER is a major intracellular store of Ca 2+, with a resting Ca 2+ concentration of several hundred μM 4. This composes a dynamic pool of Ca 2+ that functions in processes ranging from proliferation to cell death, and of note, autophagy. Autophagy consists of several sequential steps—sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation, and utilization of degradation products—and each step may exert different function. In this review, the process of autophagy is summarized, and the role of autophagy is discussed in a process-based manner.

    Glucose transporters, mainly from GLUT family, which are often upregulated in cancer, are also prominent targets for autophagy induction. The major factors influencing autophagy are Ca channels like voltage-gated T- and L-type channels, IP3 receptors, or CRAC are involved in autophagy regulation.

    Calcium chloroquine autophagy review

    Autophagy Induced by Calcium Phosphate Precipitates., The intersection of lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum.

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  7. Chloroquine in the Kidney, the Double-Edged Sword of Autophagy. The use of chloroquine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents may enhance cancer treatment 8, 29, but normal cells also use autophagy to maintain homeostasis, and inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine may sensitize not only cancer cells, but also normal organs to chemotherapy.

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    The Ca 2+ ‐calmodulin complex activates calcium/calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase kinase CaMKK1/2, which activates AMPK and triggers autophagy. 1, 2 Lysosomal Ca 2+ signaling can activate autophagy through calcineurin. 3 Thus, autophagy is controlled by multiple signals generated by dynamic changes in nutrient levels and/or calcium mobilization. Hypoxia can induce autophagy, which is activated in response to protein aggregates, in the proteotoxic forms of cardiac diseases. Previous studies suggested that autophagy can protect cells by avoiding accumulation of misfolded proteins, which can be generated in response to ischemia/reperfusion I/R injury. Autophagy and the cGAS/STING pathway. The cGAS/STING pathway is a major signaling hub for innate immune responses to cytoplasmic self or foreign DNA. The sensor cGAS detects dsDNA and DNA/RNA hybrids, and then produces the messenger molecule 2’,3’-cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide that activates the adaptor protein STING.

     
  8. leow XenForo Moderator

    Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in the treatment of post-Lyme arthritis. Side Effects of Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine, Warnings, Uses Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine sulfate dose, indications. Hydroxychloroquine Uses, Dosage & Side Effects -
     
  9. prodle XenForo Moderator

    Hydroxychloroquine is used to treat or prevent malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Hydroxychloroquine SULFATE - Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate CAS Hydroxychloroquine Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx
     
  10. Gazonus User

    Hydroxychloroquine Side Effects Common, Severe, Long Term. Applies to hydroxychloroquine oral tablet. Along with its needed effects, hydroxychloroquine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking hydroxychloroquine

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